Abstract：Starting from Fei Xiaotong’s works before his fieldwork of 1936 in Jiangcun, and through a close analysis of his texts, this paper tries to summarize Fei Xiaotong’s early thoughts. Through this analysis, this paper finds out that, Fei’s core concern is the relationship between social transition and social balance. While social transition was the basic condition of China by that time and was also the starting point of Fei in his early period, social balance was the target for him by that time of social transition, which had shown influence on him of the Chicago school. Although Fei was famous for his community study in his book of Peasant Life in China, community study was majorly his means of core concern. As a result of his studies on social transition and social balance, Fei develops his basic train of thought and methodology of social study, all of which had been shown clearly in his fieldworks of Jiangcun and writings of the book Peasant Life in China.